Everything you wanted to know about UV Lamps
Everything you wanted to know about UV Lamps
The use of UV light as a curing technology has been around for a long time. In the last few years it has become more popular since the technology on the lamps and the materials side has greatly improved. Applications are now on sheetfed, web and wide format inkjet equipment. The major advantages of UV inks are:
1) Press sheets are dry when they come off the press
2) Higher throughput speed than Infra-Red drying
3) No Volatile Organic Compounds released in the air
4) Resist smudging and abrasion
5) UV Coatings have a “wet look”
6) Do not have solvents to penetrate uncoated stocks
Most printers buy UV power supply systems that may be supplied by the manufacturer of the equipment but made by someone else. Understanding how UV lamps work can improve their performance and save you money.
There are series power supply for different applications. Low-pressure UV lamps may be used for disinfecting purposes, curing nails and dental fillings, or water purification. The type of lamp used in printing applications is usually a medium pressure, linear (straight tubes), mercury vapor arc lamp. Medium pressure UV lamps cure inks and coatings instantly. It is a photochemical, not a heat process. It allows the equipment to run at very high speeds for extended periods.
General use light bulbs have a filament. The electricity causes the filament to glow, producing light. Medium pressure UV lamps do not have a filament. They utilize a high voltage charge to ionize a mercury/gas mixture in the lamp creating a plasma that emits UV light. This system requires a high voltage/amperage power supply (typically a magnetic ballast transformer with a high voltage capacitor bank). The ballast is wired in series with the lamp and performs two functions. Initially, the ballast provides a high voltage charge to ‘strike’ or ‘ionize’ the mercury. Then, once the mercury is ionized, the ballast reduces the voltage and amperage required to keep the mercury ionized and emit a stable stream of UV light.
These lamps generate a specific wavelength to cure the inks or coatings. Currently, most of these lamps operate at 300 to 600 watts per inch with some newer systems using lamps that generate up to 1000 watts per inch. So a 30 inch UV bulb may be capable of an output of 30,000 watts. They also operate at very high temperatures (850 to 950 Celsius or 1550 to 1750 Fahrenheit).
This type of UV lamp is made from Quartz. A general glass product would not be able to withstand the high temperatures. An inert gas (usually argon) is pumped into the quartz sleeve and then mercury is added to achieve the proper electrical specification. Iron and gallium are occasionally added to achieve special wavelengths. The tubes are sealed and the correct electrical end-fittings are added to complete the lamp.
These lamps need a powerful cooling system to offset the high operating heat. They are usually air or air and water cooled. They also use reflectors to maximize the ultraviolet light delivered to the substrate. There must be an even flow of air or water across the lamp for proper curing. If lamps run too cool they may not cure the ink or coating. Some systems use outside air for cooling. As the seasons change, depending on your geographic location, you may need to adjust your fan speed or increase/decrease water temperature to maintain proper cooling.
Contamination is another problem that can affect lamp performance. Due to the high heat air contaminants such as spray powder from other presses or dust particles can bake on the lamps creating a haze. This decreases the performance of the lamps. Ideally, even after extended use the quartz should be completely clear.
The xenon searchlight is delivered with a built-in xenon power supply, excluding large and heavy external power supply’s. This design enables easy installation (no external power supply TA values or IP-ratings to be considered) and significant cost savings, by reducing engineering and eliminating these cables and connections:
- Cable between power source and external power supply
- Cable between power supply and searchlight
- Remote signal cable between searchlight and power supply
UV LED systems have a bright future in industrial and life science applications even given the fact that humans can’t see the light. In particular, LEDs in the UV-C band (generally 100–280 nm) promise to revolutionize sterilization and disinfection and could bring safe water to people around the globe and safer conditions to our medical facilities (Fig. 1). LEDs Magazine, in fact, covered a UV LED Curing with 4in1 designed for such an application earlier this year. Still, we hear that such applications need LEDs with higher performance and longer lifetimes to truly penetrate the market. But UV product developers need to rethink LED lifetime as another variable in the engineering process.