Printed Circuit Boards

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  • Printed Circuit Boards

    Precio : Gratis

    Publicado por : dnfsdd814

    Publicado en : 27-10-21

    Ubicación : Albacete

    Visitas : 5



    Printed Circuit Boards

    Printed Circuit Boards
        OrCAD PCB Editor is based on Allegro PCB Editor, so this book will be useful to new

    Allegro printed circuit boards

    Editor users as well. Allegro PCB Editor is a powerful, full-featured design tool. While

    OrCAD PCB Editor has inherited many of those features, including a common file format, it

    does not possess all of the capabilities available to the Allegro PCB tiers, such as

    Allegro High-Speed Option, Analog/RF Option, FPGA System Planner, Design Planning, and

    Miniaturization Option. Consequently most of the basic tools and features are described

    here, but only a few of the more-advanced tools are covered, as outlined later.
        PC board traces must be sized appropriately (both in width and thickness, or copper

    weight10) to carry the current that you need without excessive temperature rise. A rule of

    thumb is that a 10-mil-wide, 1-ounce PC board trace can carry in excess of 500 mA with a 20

    °C temperature rise above ambient. PC board copper weight vs. trace thickness is shown in

    Table 15.5. An estimate of the current-carrying capability for 20 °C temperature rise of

    PC board traces is shown in Figure 15.12. The fusing current (Figure 15.13) for PC board

    traces is significantly higher.
        OK – So What’s a Printed Circuit Board?
        I’ve just mentioned a printed circuit board, but what exactly is a printed circuit

    board? Well, look inside any modern electronics appliance (television, computer, mobile

    phone, etc.) or even many electrical appliances (washing machine, iron, kettle, etc.) and

    you’ll see a printed circuit board – often known by the

    multilayer PCB.
        A printed circuit board is a thin baseboard (about 1.5 mm) of insulating material such

    as resin-bonded paper or fiberglass, with an even thinner layer of copper (about 0.2 mm) on

    one or both surfaces. (If copper is only on one surface it’s then known as single-sided

    printed circuit board; if copper is on both surfaces it’s known as double-sided printed

    circuit board.) The copper on the surface of a printed circuit board has been printed as a

    circuit (yes, OK, that’s why it’s called printed circuit board – geddit?), so that

    components on the printed circuit board can be soldered to the copper, and thus be

    connected to other components similarly soldered. Photo 12.1 shows a fairly modern printed

    circuit board to show you what they look like. The printed circuit board shown is quite a

    complex one, with hundreds of components – from a computer actually – but the printed

    circuit board in a washing machine, say, may only hold a handful of components. Photo 12.2

    shows how the copper on a printed circuit board comprises a pattern of copper – sometimes

    called the copper track – rather than a solid layer. This pattern or track is the key to

    making connections between components.
        PCB design begins with an insulating base and adds metal tracks for electrical

    interconnect and the placement of suitable electronic components to define and create an

    electronic circuit that performs a required set of functions.
        The term printed isn’t exactly an accurate description of how the copper on the

    surface of a printed circuit board is formed. In fact, all printed circuit boards start

    life with a complete layer of copper on one or both sides of the insulating board. Then,

    unwanted copper is removed from the board, leaving the wanted copper pattern behind.

    Typically, this copper removal is usually – though not always – done by etching the

    copper away using strong chemicals.
        Figure 12.1 shows a cross-section of a simple printed circuit board. In it you can see

    the insulating board, the copper track, and the holes for component leads. Components fit

    to the printed circuit quite easily. Their leads are inserted through the board holes, and

    are then soldered to the copper track. Figure 12.2 shows how this works. In terms of the

    amateur enthusiast in electronics, simple (and relatively inexpensive) hand-tools are all

    that are required in this soldering process – we’ll look at these, and how to use them,

    later.
        Initially, a design specification (document) is written that identifies the required

    functionality of the thick copper PCB. From this, the designer creates the circuit design, which is

    entered into the PCB design tools.
        The design schematic is analyzed through simulation using a suitably defined test

    stimulus, and the operation of the design is verified. If the design does not meet the

    required specification, then either the design must be modified, or in extreme cases, the

    design specification must be changed.
        When the design schematic is complete, the PCB layout is created, taking into account

    layout directives (set by the particular design project) and the manufacturing process

    design rules.
        On successful completion of the layout, it undergoes analysis by (i) resimulating the

    schematic design to account for the track parasitic components (usually the parasitic

    capacitance is used), and (ii) using specially designed signal integrity tools to confirm

    that the circuit design on the PCB will function correctly. If not, the design layout,

    schematic, or specification will require modification.
        When all steps to layout have been completed, the design is ready for submission for

    manufacture.
        1.2 EMC on the Printed Circuit Board
        Almost every printed circuit board (PCB) is different and completely application

    specific. Even within similar products the PCB can be different, for example open two PCs

    from different manufacturers, with the same processor, clock speed, keyboard interface,

    etc., the actual PCB layout will be different. This diversity means that every

    high tg PCB has a

    unique level of EMC performance, so what can possibly be done to ensure that this is within

    certain limits?
        It should not surprise circuit designers that the layout of the PCB can have a

    significant effect on the EMC performance of a system, usually more so than the actual

    choice of components. Consequently, PCB layout is one of the most critical areas of

    consideration for design to meet EMC regulations.
        The fact that there are so many different PCB designs in existence is a testimony to

    the low cost of producing a PCB, but relaying a complete PCB because of poor layout design

    causes significant increases in costs not present in the actual material price of the

    board. Relaying a PCB will create a delay in time to market, hence lost sales revenue. New

    PCB layouts or changes usually entail new solder masks, reprogramming component placement

    machines, rewriting the production instructions, etc., hence cost may not be present in the

    final product part cost, but in the development and production overhead.
        Although a significant factor in overall EMC performance, the recommendations for

    minimising the effect of PCB layout on EMC are general good PCB design practices. The cost

    of implementing these recommendations is solely in the time taken to ensure that these good

    design practices are implemented, vigilance and experience are the two main requirements,

    not necessarily new design software or extensive retraining.
        Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are by far the most common method of assembling modern

    electronic circuits. They comprise a sandwich of one or more insulating layers and one or

    more copper layers which contain the signal traces and the powers and grounds; the design

    of the layout of PCBs can be as demanding as the design of the electrical circuit.
        Most modern systems consist of multilayer boards of anywhere up to eight layers (or

    sometimes even more). Traditionally, components were mounted on the top layer in holes

    which extended through all layers. These are referred to as “through-hole” components.

    More recently, with the near universal adoption of surface mount components, you commonly

    find components mounted on both the top and the bottom layers.
        The design of the PCB can be as important as the circuit design to the overall

    performance of the final system. We shall discuss in this chapter the partitioning of the

    circuitry, the problem of interconnecting traces, parasitic components, grounding schemes,

    and decoupling. All of these are important in the success of a total design.
        PCB effects that are harmful to precision circuit performance include leakage

    resistances, IR voltage drops in trace foils, vias, and ground planes, the influence of

    stray capacitance, and dielectric absorption (DA). In addition, the tendency of PCBs to

    absorb atmospheric moisture (hygroscopicity) means that changes in humidity often cause the

    contributions of some parasitic effects to vary from day to day.
        In general, PCB effects can be divided into two broad categories—those that most

    noticeably affect the static or DC operation of the circuit, and those that most noticeably

    affect dynamic or AC circuit operation, especially at high frequencies.
        Another very broad area of high frequency PCB design is the topic of grounding. Grounding is a

    problem area in itself for all analog and mixed-signal designs, and it can be said that

    simply implementing a PCB-based circuit does not change the fact that proper techniques are

    required. Fortunately, certain principles of quality grounding, namely the use of ground

    planes, are intrinsic to the PCB environment. This factor is one of the more significant

    advantages to PCB-based analog designs, and appreciable discussion in this section is

    focused on this issue.
        Some other aspects of grounding that must be managed include the control of spurious

    ground and signal return voltages that can degrade performance. These voltages can be due

    to external signal coupling, common currents, or simply excessive IR drops in ground

    conductors. Proper conductor routing and sizing, as well as differential signal-handling

    and ground isolation techniques enable control of such parasitic voltages.
        One final area of grounding to be discussed is grounding appropriate for a mixed-

    signal, analog/digital environment. Indeed, the single issue of quality grounding can

    influence the entire layout philosophy of a high performance mixed-signal PCB design—as it

    well should.
        Function of OrCAD PCB Editor in the printed circuit board design process
        PCB Editor is used to design the PCB by generating a digital description of the board

    layers for photoplotters and CNC machines, which are used to manufacture the boards.

    Separate layers are used for routing copper traces on the top, bottom, and all inner

    layers; drill hole sizes and locations; soldermasks; silk screens; solder paste; part

    placement; and board dimensions. These layers are not all portrayed identically in PCB

    Editor. Some of the layers are shown from a positive perspective, meaning what you see with

    the software is what is placed onto the board, while other layers are shown from a negative

    perspective, meaning what you see with the software is what is removed from the board. The

    layers represented in the positive view are the board outline, routed copper, silk screens,

    solder paste, and assembly information. The layers represented in the negative view are

    drill holes and soldermasks. Copper plane layers are handled in a special way, as described

    next.
        Fig. 1.17 shows routed layers (top and bottom and an inner, for example) that PCB

    Editor shows in the positive perspective. The background is black and the traces and pads

    on each layer are a different color to make it easier to keep track of visually. The drill

    holes are not shown because, as mentioned already, the drilling process is a distinct step

    performed at a specific time during the manufacturing process.
        PCBs usually contain epoxy resin, fiberglass, copper, nickel, iron, aluminum and a

    certain amount of precious metals such as gold and silver; those materials and metals along

    with electronic parts are attached to the board by a solder containing lead and tin. The

    main material composition of PCBs was determined and is shown in Table 13.1. From the

    table, the composition of metals, ceramic and plastics could reach 40%, 30% and 30%,

    respectively. Further, the concentrations of precious metals in waste PCBs are richer than

    in natural ores, which makes their recycling important from both economic and environmental

    perspectives. Table 13.2 shows the average content and value ratio of different metals in

    PCBs. One can see that Au, Cu, Pd and Ag account for nearly all of the economic material

    value in waste PCBs. Therefore, PCB recycling focuses on recovering these metals above all

    else.
        For the technology and engineering of very complex boards, the United States, the

    United Kingdom, Germany and France still have a competitive advantage. There is every

    reason to believe that the advantage will soon be lost to Asia. Asia produces three-fourths

    of the world’s PCBs, with over 1000 manufacturers in China alone. The PCB industry, like

    the larger electronics industry, has always had a global component. Only in the past four

    years, however, has the US manufacturing base faced a serious decline. In 2003, the United

    States produced 15% of the world’s PCBs, trailing Japan, the largest producer at 29%, and

    China, the second largest at 17%. Taiwan was the fourth largest producer at 13%. Europe

    produced only 10%, and South Korea 8%. No American company is now among the top ten

    manufacturers of PCBs. China has overtaken Japan as the leader in PCB production and is

    forecast to produce $10.6 billion worth of PCBs, accounting for 25% of the world total

    (LaDou, 2006).

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