What are the most healthful vegetables?
What are the most healthful vegetables?
Eating plenty of vegetables may be one of
the simplest ways to improve health and well-being.
All vegetables contain healthful vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber — but some
stand out for their exceptional benefits.
Specific vegetables may offer more health advantages to certain people, depending on
their diets, overall health, and nutritional needs.
In this article, we look at 15 of the most healthful vegetables and suggest ways to
enjoy them as part of a balanced diet.
Spinach is a leafy green vegetable and a great source of calcium, vitamins, iron, and
Due to its iron and calcium content, spinach is a great addition to any meat- or
One cup of raw spinach is mostly made up of water and contains only 7 caloriesTrusted
Source. It also provides:
an adult’s full daily requirementTrusted Source of vitamin K
high amounts of vitamin A
Vitamin K is essential for a healthy body — especially for strong bones, as it
improves the absorption of calcium.
Spinach also provides a good amount of iron for energy and healthy blood, and a high
level of magnesium for muscle and nerve function.
It is also rich in antioxidants, and researchTrusted Source suggests that spinach
leaves may lower blood pressure and benefit heart health.
If a person is taking blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin), they should use
caution when increasing their intake of dark leafy greens. Doctors recommend maintaining a
consistent vitamin K intake over time for people taking these medications.
How to eat spinach
People enjoy spinach raw in salads, sandwiches, and smoothies. Cooked spinach also has
significant health benefits and is a great addition to pasta dishes and soups.
Kale is a very popular leafy green vegetable products with several health benefits. It provides around 7
caloriesTrusted Source per cup of raw leaves and good amounts of vitamins A, C, and K.
Kale may benefit people with high cholesterol. One small 2008 study reports that males
with high cholesterol who drank 150 milliliters of kale juice each day for 12 weeks
experienced a 10% reduction in low-density lipoprotein, or “bad,” cholesterol and a 27%
increase in high-density lipoprotein, or “good,” cholesterol.
Research from 2015Trusted Source, meanwhile, suggests that kale juice can reduce blood
pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood sugar levels.
If a person is taking blood thinners, such as Coumadin, they should use caution when
increasing their intake of dark leafy greens. It is best to maintain a consistent vitamin K
intake while taking these medications.
How to eat kale
People use baby kale in pasta dishes, salads, and sandwiches. A person may also enjoy
kale chips or juice.
Broccoli is an incredibly healthful vegetable that belongs to the same family as
cabbage, kale, and cauliflower, fresh garlic, fresh onion, etc. These are all cruciferous vegetables.
Each cup of chopped and boiled broccoli contains:
around 31 caloriesTrusted Source
the full daily requirement of vitamin K
twice the daily recommended amount of vitamin C
According to the National Cancer InstituteTrusted Source, animal research has found
that certain chemicals, called indoles and isothiocyanates, in cruciferous vegetables may
inhibit the development of cancer in several organs, including the bladder, breasts, liver,
These compounds may protect cells from DNA damage, inactivate cancer-causing agents,
and have anti-inflammatory effects. However, research in humans has been mixed.
How to eat broccoli
Broccoli is very versatile. People can roast it, steam it, fry it, blend it into soups,
or enjoy it warm in salads.
Peas are a sweet, starchy vegetable. They contain 134 caloriesTrusted Source per cooked
cup, and they are rich in:
fiber, providing 9 grams (g) per serving
protein, providing 9 g per serving
vitamins A, C, and K
certain B vitamins
Green peas are a good source of plant-based protein, which may be especially beneficial
for people with vegetarian or vegan diets.
Peas and other legumes contain fiber, which supports good bacteria in the gut and helps
ensure regular bowel movements and a healthy digestive tract.
They are also rich in saponins, plant compounds that may help protect againstTrusted
Source oxidative stress and cancer.
How to eat peas
It might be handy to keep a bag of peas in the freezer and gradually use them to boost
the nutritional profiles of pasta dishes, risottos, and curries. A person might also enjoy
a refreshing pea and mint soup.
5. Sweet potatoes
Sweet potatoes are root vegetables. Baked in its skin, a medium sweet potato provides
103 caloriesTrusted Source and 0.17 g of fat.
Each sweet potato also contains:
much more than an adult’s daily requirement of vitamin A
25% of their vitamin C and B6 requirements
12% of their potassium requirement
beta carotene, which may improve eye health and help fight cancer
Sweet potatoes may be a good option for people with diabetes. This is because they are
low on the glycemic index and rich in fiber, so they may help regulate blood sugar.
How to eat sweet potatoes
For a simple meal, bake a sweet potato in its skin and serve it with a source of
protein, such as fish or tofu.
One cup of raw beets contains:
58.5 caloriesTrusted Source
442 milligrams (mg) of potassium
148 micrograms of folate
Beets and beet juice are great for improving heart health, as the vegetable is rich in
heart-healthy nitrates. A small 2012 studyTrusted Source reports that drinking 500 g of
beet juice significantly lowered blood pressure in healthy people.
These vegetables may also benefit people with diabetes. Beets contain an antioxidant
called alpha-lipoic acid, which might be helpfulTrusted Source for people with diabetes-
related nerve problems, called diabetic neuropathy.
How to eat beets
Roasting beets brings out their natural sweetness, but they also taste great raw in
juices, salads, and sandwiches.
Each cup of chopped carrots contains 52 caloriesTrusted Source and over four times an
adult’s daily recommended intake of vitamin A, in the form of beta carotene.
Vitamin A is vital for healthy eyesight, and getting enough of this nutrient may help
prevent vision loss.
Certain nutrients in carrots may also have cancer-fighting properties. A 2018
reviewTrusted Source of 10 articles reports that dietary carrot intake was associated with
a reduced risk of breast cancer.
How to eat carrots
Carrots are extremely versatile. They work well in casseroles and soups, and they
provide great health benefits when eaten raw, possibly with a dip such as hummus.
8. Fermented vegetables
Fermented vegetables provide all the nutrients of their unfermented counterparts as
well as healthful doses of probiotics.
Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are present in the body and in some foods and
supplements. Some researchers believe that they can improve gut health.
According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthTrusted
Source, probiotics may help with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. They may also
prevent infection- or antibiotic-induced diarrhea.
Some good vegetables for fermentation include:
cabbage, as sauerkraut
cucumbers, as pickles
How to eat fermented vegetables
People eat fermented vegetables in salads, sandwiches, or as a side dish.
Although tomatoes are technically a fruit products, most people treat them like vegetables and use them in
savory dishes. Each cup of chopped, raw tomatoes contains:
32 caloriesTrusted Source
427 mg of potassium
24.7 mg of vitamin C
Tomatoes contain lycopene, a powerful antioxidant. ResearchTrusted Source suggests that
lycopene may help prevent prostate cancer, and the beta carotene in tomatoes also helps
Meanwhile, other potent antioxidants in tomatoes, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, may
The Age-Related Eye Disease StudyTrusted Source reports that people who have high
dietary intakes of these substances have a 25% reduced risk of age-related macular
How to eat tomatoes
People enjoy tomatoes raw or cooked, and cooking them releases more lycopene.
People have long used garlic in cooking and medicine. Each garlic clove contains just 4
caloriesTrusted Source and is low in vitamins and minerals.
However, garlic is a natural antibiotic. For example, a 2018 reviewTrusted Source notes
that people have used garlic for purposes similar to those of antibiotics since the 16th
Allium, a component of garlic, may be the source of its health benefits. Confirming
this will require more research.
How to eat garlic
Heating garlic reduces its health benefits, so it is best to eat garlic raw, in
bruschetta or dips, for example. There is also
Each cup of chopped onions can provideTrusted Source:
Onions and other allium vegetables, including garlic, contain sulfur compounds. Review
studies, including a 2019 reviewTrusted Source and a 2015 reviewTrusted Source, suggest
that these compounds may help protect against cancer.
How to eat onions
It can be easy to incorporate onions into soups, stews, stir-fries, and curries. To get
the most from their antioxidants, eat them raw — in sandwiches, salads, and dips such as
12. Alfalfa sprouts
Each cup of alfalfa sprouts contains only 8 caloriesTrusted Source and a good amount of
These sprouts also boast several compounds that contribute to good health, including:
saponins, a type of bitter compound with health benefits
flavonoids, a type of polyphenol known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
phytoestrogens, plant compounds that are similar to natural estrogens
Traditionally, some have used alfalfa sprouts to treat a range of health conditions,
such as arthritis and kidney problems. However, very few scientific investigations have
explored these uses.
Research suggests that alfalfa sprouts contain antioxidants, which are compounds that
may help fight diseases including cancer and heart disease.
Eating sprouted legumes such as these may have other benefits. StudiesTrusted Source
suggest that sprouting, or germinating, seeds increases their protein and amino acid
Germination may also improveTrusted Source the digestibility of alfalfa and other seeds
and increase their dietary fiber content.
How to eat alfalfa sprouts
People enjoy alfalfa sprouts in salads and sandwiches.
13. Bell peppers
Sweet bell peppers may be red, yellow, or orange. Unripe, green bell peppers are also
popular, though they taste less sweet.
A cup of chopped red bell pepper provides:
39 caloriesTrusted Source
190 mg of vitamin C
0.434 mg of vitamin B6
beta carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A
Antioxidants and bioactive chemicals present in bell peppers includeTrusted Source:
flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol
How to eat bell peppers
Bell peppers are extremely versatile and can be easy to incorporate into pasta,
scrambled eggs, or a salad. A person might also enjoy them sliced with a side of guacamole
One cup of chopped cauliflower contains:
27 caloriesTrusted Source
plenty of vitamin C
The American Heart AssociationTrusted Source recommend eating 25 g of dietary fiber
each day to promote heart and gut health.
Also, cauliflower and other cruciferous vegetables contain an antioxidant called
indole-3-carbinol. ResearchTrusted Source has linked this compound with cancer-combatting
effects in animals. However, confirming the effects in humans requires more research.
And like broccoli, cauliflower contains another compound that may help combat cancer:
How to eat cauliflower
A person can pulse raw cauliflower in a blender to make cauliflower rice or turn it
into a pizza base for a low-calorie, comforting treat. People may also enjoy cauliflower in
curries or baked with olive oil and garlic.
Seaweed, also known as sea vegetables, are versatile and nutritious plants that provide
several health benefits. Common types of seaweed include:
Seaweed is one of the few plant-based sources of the omega-3 fatty acids
docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These are essential for health and are
mostly present in meat and dairy.
Each type of seaweed has a slightly different nutritional profile, but they are
typically rich in iodine, which is an essential nutrient for thyroid function.
Eating a variety of sea vegetables can provide the body with several important
antioxidants to reduce cellular damage.
Also, many types of seaweed contain chlorophyll, which is a plant pigment that has
anti-inflammatory propertiesTrusted Source.
Brown sea vegetables, such as kelp and wakame, contain another potent antioxidant
called fucoxanthin. ResearchTrusted Source suggests that this has 13.5 times the
antioxidant power of vitamin E.
How to eat seaweed
When possible, choose organic seaweed and eat small amounts to avoid introducing too
much iodine into the diet. People enjoy sea vegetables in sushi, miso soups, and as a
seasoning for other dishes.
Eating vegetables every day is important for health. They provide essential vitamins,
minerals, and other nutrients, such as antioxidants and fiber.
Research consistently shows that people who eat at least 5 servings of vegetables a day
have the lowest risk of many diseases, including cancer and heart disease.
Enjoy a range of vegetables and fruits like fresh apple and fresh oranges, daily to reap as many health benefits as